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It is however difficult to quantify their number as the stigma attached to being one makes it hard for irreligious Egyptians to publicly profess their views. Outspoken atheists, like Alber Saber , have been convicted under this law. The number of atheists is reportedly on the rise among the country's youth, many of whom organize and communicate with each other on the internet. Atheists or irreligious people cannot change their official religious status, thus statistically they are counted as followers of the religion they were born with.

The Constitution of Equatorial Guinea provides for the freedom of religion, and prohibits the establishment of political parties on the basis of religion. The law establishes no state religion, but the government gives preference to the Roman Catholic Church and the Reformed Church of Equatorial Guinea , which are the only religious groups not required to register their organization or activities with the Ministry of Justice, Religious Affairs, and Penitentiary Institutions MJRAPI [47]. The government provides funds to the Catholic Church and its schools for educational programming.

Catholic masses are also a normal part of official government ceremonial functions. Permits are required for door-to-door proselytism. While some time limits are officially imposed on public religious activities, Evangelical Christian groups often hold activities outside the prescribed period without government intervention.

Those practicing religions that are not recognized face imprisonment. Human rights groups like Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have documented serious violations of the right to freedom of religion. They report disruption of private worship, mass arrests of participants at religious weddings, prayer meetings, and other gatherings. The constitution and laws protect religious freedom in Eswatini , but "minority religious groups enjoy fewer protections under traditional laws and customs, which include traditional courts and the authority of approximately chiefs", according to a U.

State Department report on religious freedom. New congregations must submit applications to the authorities through one of three umbrella bodies: the League of Churches , Swaziland Conference of Churches , or Council of Swaziland Churches. Believers practice openly and without interference, with Muslim clergy being permitted access to prisoners and Baha'i Baha'i schools allowed to close on that religion's holy days. Despite a general respect for religious freedom, however, there is still a degree of societal discrimination, especially toward non-Christian faiths.

The constitution of Ethiopia codifies the separation of religion and the state, establishes freedom of religious choice, prohibits religious discrimination, and stipulates that the government will not interfere in the practice of any religion. The federal government generally follows these principles, although there have been abuses at the level of local government. Religious groups must register with the government to obtain legal status, which grants them the right to congregate in public and to request land from the government for the construction of religious buildings.

Religious instruction is not allowed in public or private schools. However, a separate category of religious schools are allowed to provide religious instruction. There have been isolated incidents of violence between religious groups. Political parties based on religious denominations are not allowed. The constitution of Gabon prohibits religious discrimination and provides for the freedom of religion and equality for all, irrespective of religious belief.

It grants religious groups autonomy and the right to provide religious instruction. Muslim, Catholic, and Protestant groups operate primary and secondary schools , in which representatives of religious groups give religious instruction. These schools must register with the Ministry of Education Gabon , which ensures they meet the same standards as public schools.

Catholic, Muslim, and Protestant leaders meet regularly and work together to promote religious tolerance. The constitution of the Gambia guarantees and protects the freedom of religion in Articles 17, 25, 32, 33, and The Supreme Islamic Council is an independent body that advises the government on religious issues. Although not represented on the council, the government provides the council with substantial funding. The country's president serves as the minister of religious affairs and maintains a formal relationship with the council. The constitution establishes Qadi courts, with Muslim judges trained in the Islamic legal tradition for matters pertaining to marriage, divorce, child custody , and inheritance for Muslims.

The Qadi courts are located in each of the country's seven regions. Non-Qadi district tribunals, which deal with issues under the customary and traditional law, apply sharia, if relevant when presiding over cases involving Muslims. A five-member Qadi panel has purview over appeals regarding decisions of the Qadi courts and non-Qadi district tribunals relating to sharia. Foreign missionary groups operate in the country.


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Faith-based nongovernmental organizations NGOs must meet the same registration and licensing requirements as other NGOs. The constitution of Ghana prohibits religious discrimination and stipulates individuals are free to profess and practice their religion. Ghanaian society is very tolerant of differences in religion. The constitution of Guinea establishes that Guinea is a secular state where all enjoy equality before the law, regardless of religion. The imams and administrative staff of the principal mosque in the capital city of Conakry , and the principal mosques in the main cities of the four regions, are government employees.

These mosques are directly under the administration of the government. The Guinean government's Secretariat of Religious Affairs aims to promote better relations among religious denominations and ameliorate interethnic tensions. The secretary general of religious affairs appoints six national directors to lead the offices of Christian affairs, Islamic affairs, pilgrimages, places of worship, economic affairs and the endowment, and general inspector.

Private Muslim and Christian schools are prevalent, and some Muslim schools receive funding from the local government. Religious groups may not own radio or television stations, but the government provides broadcast time for religious groups on state-owned television channels, and privately owned radio stations are allowed to air religious programming. In some parts of Guinea, strong familial, communal, cultural, social, or economic pressure discourage conversion from Islam.

Dinguiraye town authorities have also refused permission to build a church within its boundaries. There were 3 days of ethno-religious fighting in the city of Nzerekore in July The constitution of Guinea-Bissau establishes the separation of religion and state and the responsibility of the state to respect and protect legally recognized religious groups. In accordance with the constitution, there is no religious instruction in public schools. The constitution of Ivory Coast calls for a secular state , although this is not interpreted as strict separation of church and state.

Officials often attend religious ceremonies as representatives of the state, and some mission schools receive government aid. Missionaries are generally welcomed throughout the nation. The government supervises and funds pilgrimages for Muslims to go to Mecca for Hajj and for Christians to go to France , Israel , and local religious sites for African Christian churches. These pilgrims number a few thousand per year.

The constitution of Kenya and other laws and policies prohibit religious discrimination and protect religious freedom, including the freedom to practice any religion or belief. All public schools have religious education classes taught by government-funded teachers. The national curriculum mandates religious classes, and students may not opt out. Some public schools offer different options for religious education, usually Christian or Islamic studies, but they are not required to offer both. Human rights and Muslim religious organizations stated that certain Muslim communities, especially ethnic Somalis , have been the target of government-directed extrajudicial killings, enforced disappearances, torture, arbitrary arrest, and detention.

A December report by a Mombasa -based human rights organization documented 81 extrajudicial killings and disappearances of Muslims from the coastal region over a five-year period. The government denied directing such actions. Ethnic Somali and other Muslim communities reported difficulties in obtaining government-mandated identification documents, citing heightened requirements for Muslim communities. Atheism is greatly stigmatized in Kenya.

Muslim minority groups, particularly those of Somali descent, reportedly continued to be harassed by non-Muslims. There were reports of religiously motivated threats of societal violence and intolerance, such as Muslim communities threatening individuals who converted from Islam to Christianity.

Kenya Religion Profiles (Subcategories)

According to religious leaders, some Muslim youths responded to alleged abuses by non-Muslim members of the police who came from other regions by vandalizing properties of local Christians. On October 17, , authorities in the coastal city of Malindi in Kilifi County charged Christian televangelist Paul Makenzi and his wife with radicalizing children. In , the Somalia -based terrorist group Al-Shabaab carried out attacks in Mandera , Wajir , Garissa , and Lamu Counties and said it had targeted non-Muslims because of their faith.

The constitution of Lesotho prohibits religious discrimination and provides for freedom of conscience, thought, and religion, including the freedom to change religion or belief and to manifest and propagate one's religion. The constitution of Liberia provides for the separation of religion and state and stipulates all persons are entitled to freedom of thought, conscience, and religion, except as required by law to protect public safety, order, health, or morals, or the rights of others.

It also provides for equal protection under the law. Starting in , there has been a political campaign to pass a constitutional amendment that would name Liberia a "Christian nation". Businesses are legally required to close on Sunday for municipal street cleaning, which Muslim citizens view as a pretext to force them to observe the Christian sabbath. Muslim women have faced obstacles to voter registration, as poll workers have refused to take ID photographs for people wearing a hijab.

The Libyan interim Constitutional Declaration states that Islam is the state religion and that Sharia is the principal source of legislation. It accords non-Muslims the freedom to practice their religion and bans discrimination based on religion. Libya has a restrictive social environment, including efforts designed to prevent women from traveling alone outside the country.

There have been reports the military governor aligned with the Tobruk government and the Libyan National Army increased restrictions on the movement of women without male guardians. The constitution of Madagascar provides for the freedoms of religious thought and expression and prohibits religious discrimination in the workplace. Other laws protect individual religious freedom against abuses by government or private actors. Members of the Muslim community and adherents of some evangelical Protestant churches have reported that they have been denied admission into private schools and sometimes had limited access to employment due to their religious affiliation.

The government's inconsistent enforcement of labor laws , particularly the provision that workers are entitled to at least one hour break from work per week, has led to workers sometimes being forced to miss religious services. The constitution of Malawi prohibits discrimination based on religion and provides for freedom of conscience, religion, belief, and thought. Religious instruction is mandatory in public primary schools, with no opt-out provision, and is available as an elective in public secondary schools.

According to the law, local school management committees, elected at parent-teacher association meetings, decide on which religious curriculum to use. Private Christian and Islamic schools offer religious instruction in their respective faiths. In exchange for this financial support, the government chooses a significant portion of the students who attend. Rastafarian children face obstacles to obtaining education, as school children in Malawi are generally required to shave their heads, and Rastafarian religious practice requires them to wear dreadlocks.

This has resulted in several Rastafarian children being denied access to public schools, although the majority concede to shaving their heads and complying with the school's rules. Religious pluralism is enshrined by Malawi society, and members of Christian, Muslim, and Hindu faiths regularly engage in business and civil society together.

Freedom of religion in Mauritania is limited by the government. The constitution establishes the country as an Islamic republic and decrees that Islam is the religion of its citizens and the State. In April , the National Assembly passed a law making the death penalty mandatory for "blasphemy". Non-Muslim resident expatriates and a few non-Muslim citizens practice their religion openly with certain limitations against proselytizing to Muslims and transmitting religious materials. Almost all of the population are practicing Sunni Muslims, although there are a few non-Muslims.

A number of expatriates practice Judaism but there are no synagogues. Relations between the Muslim community and the small non-Muslim community are generally amicable. There are several foreign faith-based nongovernmental organizations NGO's active in humanitarian and developmental work in the country. The government does not register religious groups; however, secular NGOs , inclusive of humanitarian and development NGO's affiliated with religious groups, must register with the Ministry of the Interior.

The constitution of Mauritius prohibits discrimination on religious grounds and provides for freedom to practice or change one's religion. The government provides money to the Roman Catholic Church , Church of England , Presbyterian Church of Mauritius , Seventh-day Adventists, Hindus, and Muslims according to their numbers in the census in addition to tax-exempt status.

Other religious groups can register and be tax-exempt but receive no subsidy.

Religious education is allowed in public and private schools, at both the primary and high school levels. Students are permitted to opt out, and civic education classes are provided for non-Catholic students attending Catholic schools. Non- Hindus have often stated they were underrepresented in government. There is tension between Hindus and Muslims in Mauritius. Police investigations revealed, however, that some alleged cases of interreligious violence were in fact cases of retaliation stemming from domestic or personal issues.


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The state religion of Morocco is Islam. The government plays an active role in determining and policing religious practice for Muslims, and disrespecting Islam in public can carry punishments in the forms of fines and imprisonment. Sunni Islam and Judaism are the only religions recognized by the Moroccan constitution as native to the country, with all other religions being considered "foreign". While foreigners can generally practice their religion in peace, citizens who practice "foreign religions" face obstacles from the government and social pressure.

Historically, Morocco has oscillated between periods of religious tolerance and intolerance. From the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb in through the reign Almoravid dynasty in the 11th and 12th centuries, the region experienced a period of significant religious tolerance; Jews and Christians were required to pay special taxes, but otherwise were allowed to practice their religions in peace, allowing for the flourishing of a Jewish Golden Age. The following Almohad Caliphate instituted harsh religious rule, and forced all non-Muslims to convert on pain of death.

Later dynasties reinstated policies of religious tolerance, allowing Jews and Christians to return to the country, although these later dynasties were also sometimes marked by the persecution of religious minorities, either by the government or by violent mobs. This attempt was blocked by Mohammed V of Morocco, although other anti-Jewish laws were successfully passed. Following independence in , Morocco established a constitution which re-established Islam as a state religion, and nominally provides for the freedom of religion, although as mentioned above, discrimination against certain minority groups continue to the present day.

The constitution of Namibia prohibits religious discrimination and provides for freedom of belief and the right to practice, profess, and promote any religion. Some religious groups have commented on the difficulty of obtaining work visas for foreign religious workers; however, they also noted that all organizations were subject to strict visa enforcement and this policy was not targeted at religious groups in particular.

In , there were no reports of significant societal actions affecting religious freedom in Namibia. Religious groups are allowed to establish private schools provided that no student is denied admission based on creed. Freedom of religion for individuals is generally respected in Niger , with the government providing some oversight for the Muslim community. The constitution of Niger prohibits religious discrimination and provides for freedom of religion and worship consistent with public order, social peace, and national unity.

It provides for the separation of state and religion and prohibits religiously affiliated political parties. The government prohibits full-face veils in Diffa Region under state of emergency provisions to prevent concealment of bombs and weapons. The government also prohibits open-air, public proselytization events due to stated safety concerns. The government created an Islamic Forum with the goal of standardizing the practice of Islam in Niger and preventing the use of Islamic institutions to spread Islamic extremism.

The establishment of any private school by a religious association must be approved by various government bodies. Private madrasas , established uniquely to teach the Quran without providing other education, are unregulated. Mainstream public schools do not include religious education. The Muslim and Christian communities in Niger generally have good relations, including ongoing interactions through a Muslim-Christian forum. Nigeria is nearly equally divided between Christianity and Islam , though the exact ratio is uncertain.

There is also a growing population of non-religious Nigerians who accounted for the remaining 5 percent. The majority of Nigerian Muslims are Sunni and are concentrated in the northern region of the country, while Christians dominate in the south. Nigeria allows freedom of religion. Religious persecution is largely carried out by groups not affiliated with the Nigerian government, such as Boko Haram. A government decree bans individuals from wearing full-face Islamic veils in public.

This decree, which was established in , received broad support from religious leaders and the general population, including Muslims. The law prohibits religious instruction in public schools. Private schools may provide religious instruction. The law requires that all public and private schools respect all philosophical and religious doctrines.

The constitution protects the right to establish private schools. The constitution of Rwanda and other laws prohibit religious discrimination and provide for freedom of religion and worship, and bars religious political parties as well as the participation of religious organizations in politics in Rwanda. Those who do not fulfill the requirement forfeit their position. The law does not make accommodations for religious minorities whose faith does not permit them to comply with this requirement. Jehovah's Witnesses have been forced to participate in compulsory night patrols and to recite a pledge of allegiance while holding the flag of Rwanda despite their religious objections.

The government subsidizes some schools affiliated with different religious groups. The order does not stipulate any procedure for arranging special accommodations, and there have been reports of Catholic and Islamic schools that have not accommodated the religious observance of students of other religions. In , two attacks on members of a Pentecostal church in the Huye District of Southern Province were reported. One day after six church members were attacked and severely beaten leaving one in a coma as a result , an armed mob attacked the church at night, injuring 25 church members.

In there were reports of Muslims and Muslim community leaders being targeted for arrest or attacked. It grants religious groups autonomy in and the right to teach their religion. The constitution of Senegal provides for the free practice of religious beliefs and self-governance by religious groups in Senegal without government interference. The government maintains programs to assist religious groups to maintain places of worship, to fund and facilitate participation in the Hajj , and to fund schools operated by religious groups.

Muslims may choose either the civil family code or Sharia to adjudicate family conflicts, such as marriage and inheritance disputes. Civil court judges preside over civil and customary law cases, but religious leaders informally settle many disputes among Muslims, particularly in rural areas. By law religious education may be proposed in public and private schools, and parents have the option to enroll their children in the program.

The constitution of Seychelles prohibits all forms of discrimination and provides for the freedom of religion. Religious groups are barred from owning radio or television stations, but larger religious groups are given programming time on state radio. Compulsory religious education in schools is against the law. Nevertheless, non-Catholic students at Catholic schools were not provided with alternative activities during religious lessons. The government offers financial assistance to religious organizations for the purpose of repairing religious buildings.

The constitution of Sierra Leone provides for the freedom of conscience and thus for freedom of religion. Laws in Sierra Leone prohibit discrimination on religious grounds, and safeguard the right of citizens to change religions. The Rastafari community in Sierra Leone has faced harassment and obstructions from the police and government of Sierra Leone, as cannabis , which plays an important role in Rastafari religious practice, is illegal in Sierra Leone.

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Intermarriage between religious groups is common in Sierra Leone, and many families have members of more than one religion. Due to the Somali Civil War , the enforcement of laws pertaining to religion by the various autonomous governments in the region is inconsistent. Sunni Islam is the state religion in Somalia. Generally, the judiciary in most areas relies on xeer traditional and customary law , sharia , and the penal code. In many regions, activity by Salafi groups further restricts religious freedom, as individuals are afraid of reprisal. Islam has been a core part of Somali national identity for the entirety of its modern history.

A constitution established Islam as the state religion, and later governments have maintained this policy. The official transitional national government has continued to uphold Islam as the state religion, and further established that the Somalian legal code is based on principles of Islamic law. Al-Shabaab , an al-Qaeda -affiliated militant group in Somalia, killed, maimed, or harassed persons suspected of converting from Islam or those who failed to adhere to the group's religious edicts. Fear of reprisals from al-Shabaab often prevented religious groups from operating freely.

There is a strong societal pressure to adhere to Sunni traditions. Conversion from Islam to another religion has been socially unacceptable in all areas of Somalia. Those suspected of conversion face harassment by members of their community. Members of other religious groups combined constitute less than 1 percent of the population and include a small Christian community, a small Sufi Muslim community, and an unknown number of Shia Muslims. Immigrants and foreign workers, who are mainly from East African countries, belong mainly to other religious groups. South Africa is a secular democracy with freedom of religion guaranteed by its constitution.

The Witchcraft Suppression Act of based on colonial witchcraft legislation criminalises claiming a knowledge of witchcraft, conducting specified practices associated with witchcraft including the use of charms and divination, and accusing others of practising witchcraft. The constitution of South Sudan provides for freedom of religion, and other laws and policies of the Government of South Sudan contribute to the generally free practice of religion.

Although the Interim National Constitution INC of Sudan provides for freedom of religion throughout the entire country of Sudan , the INC enshrines Shari'a as a source of legislation in the country and the official laws and policies of the government systematically favor Islam. Discrimination based on religious affiliation, belief, or practice, and religious prejudice remains widespread. Muslims who express an interest in Christianity, or convert to Christianity, face strong social pressure to recant.

Muslims who convert to Christianity can face the death penalty for apostasy. The government of Tanzania and the semiautonomous government of Zanzibar both recognize religious freedom as a principle and make efforts to protect it.

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Regulating Religious Freedom in Africa |

The government of Zanzibar appoints Muslim religious officials in Zanzibar. The main body of law in Tanzania and Zanzibar is secular , but Muslims have the option to use religious courts for family-related cases. Individual cases of religiously motivated violence have occurred against both Christians and Muslims [].

The policies and ideology of Ujamaa espoused by Tanzania's first government following independence from the United Kingdom in the s emphasized national unity over religious or ethnic division, [] and this is reflected by the strong anti-discrimination rhetoric in Tanzania's constitution, which is still in effect as of While Ujamaa was abandoned as a state project in , and religious discord has risen somewhat since then, [1] academic and NGO sources credit Ujamaa for contributing to a climate of religious freedom and relative social stability in Tanzania.

The constitution of Togo specifies the state is secular and protects the rights of all citizens of Togo to exercise their religious beliefs, consistent with the nation's laws. Religious groups other than Roman Catholics, Protestants, and Muslims must register with the government.

In and , the government did not approve any pending registration applications from religious groups, nor did it accept new applications because additional legislation pertaining to religious freedom is being drafted. Approximately applications remained pending at the end of The constitution prohibits the establishment of political parties based on religion. The law forbids private religious radio stations from broadcasting political material. The public school curriculum does not include religion classes.

There are many Catholic, Protestant, and Islamic schools, to which the government assigns its own paid employees as additional teachers and staff. Other registered religious groups have the right to establish schools as long as they meet accreditation standards. There is a high degree of religious tolerance in Togolese society. Members of different religious groups regularly to invite one another to their respective ceremonies. Marriage between persons of different religious groups remained common. According to the Directorate of Religious Affairs in the Ministry of Territorial Affairs , disputes continued to occur when new churches established themselves in neighborhoods, particularly those led by religious leaders from Nigeria.

Local residents continued to state some of these congregations worshiped too loudly and often late at night, using drums. The MTA received 40 complaints during the year, nearly all regarding noise, and the ministry stated it sought to resolve them. These complaints reportedly often focused on evangelical Protestant congregations whose services often employ musical instruments and loud praying. The constitution of Tunisia establishes that Islam is the state religion of Tunisia and requires the president to be Muslim, but also provides for the freedoms of belief, conscience, and religious practice.

The constitution further designates that the government is the "guardian of religion" and that its duties include the promotion of the values of "moderation and tolerance", as well as prohibiting the use of mosques and other houses of worship to promote political agendas. Laws prohibit the promotion of discrimination, hatred, or violence along religious lines. The government subsidizes mosques and synagogues , appoints imams , and pays their salaries, and also pays the salary of the grand rabbi.

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The Grand Mufti is selected by the president. The Ministry of Religious Affairs suggests themes for Friday prayers, but does not regulate their content. It is mandatory for students in public schools to attend courses on Islam approximately one hour per week. The curriculum for secondary school students also includes references to the history of Judaism and Christianity. Religious groups may operate private schools.

Provisions of law addressing marriage, divorce, and other personal status issues are largely based on principles of civil law, combined with elements of sharia. Laws of inheritance are principally based on requirements in sharia, but there are some provisions that allow for exceptions as outlined in the Code of Personal Status. The police in Tunisia have targeted Salafists and others profiled as terrorists with arrests, house searches, and other restrictions.

The political party Hizb ut-Tahrir was suspended for one month by a court in Tunis for violating laws against the incitement of religious hatred and for advocating the establishment of a Caliphate.

Regulating Religious Freedom in Africa |

In September , the government abolished a law prohibiting Muslim women from marrying non-Muslim men. Christian converts from Islam and atheists reported threats of violence and societal pressure to conceal their faith. In June , during Ramadan , police arrested five individuals in Bizerte , who were subsequently sentenced to one month in prison for public indecency for eating or smoking in public during the daytime.

The arrests were followed by protests calling for the individuals' release. The governor and Tunis and the minister of the interior also condemned the arrests []. In October , the government approved the establishment of the openly atheist organization, the Tunisian Council of Secularism. The constitution of Uganda prohibits religious discrimination, establishes the freedom of conscience, and establishes that Uganda does not have a state religion. The government restricts the activities of religious groups that it has defined as "cults", and also has arrested some individuals who refused to participate in vaccination initiatives for religious reasons.

According to the Uganda Muslim Supreme Council , the government discriminates against Muslims when hiring government officials. In accordance with the constitution, religious instruction in public schools is optional. The state has developed separate curricula for a number of world religions, including Christianity and Islam. Public primary and secondary schools may choose which, if any, religious studies to incorporate into their curriculum; however, they must adhere to the state-approved curriculum for each religion they choose to teach.

In December , the Uganda Police Force raided two Salafi mosques in Kampala and arrested fourteen individuals for suspected involvement in the November killing of Sheikh Mohammed Kigundu , a Muslim cleric. The suspects were released in January , and the police force apologized to the Muslim community, saying that it had acted on false intelligence. The constitution of Zambia establishes Zambia as a Christian country while prohibiting religious discrimination and guaranteeing the freedoms of conscience, belief and religion.

Some religious groups within Zambia have criticized actions President Edgar Lungu 's government for "blurring the line between church and state" and showing religious favoritism to Christians. Religious groups are allowed to establish private schools and provide religious instruction to members of their religious communities. The government requires religious instruction in all schools from grades one through nine.

Students may request education in their religion and may opt out of religious instruction only if the school is not able to accommodate their request. Religious education after grade nine is optional and is not offered at all schools. The religious curriculum focuses on Christian teachings but also incorporates comparative studies of Islam, Hinduism, and traditional beliefs. Several mob attacks against those suspected of witchcraft occurred in Victims were usually elderly, and incidents often resulted in the violent death of the accused.

The constitution of Zimbabwe prohibits religious discrimination and guarantees the freedom of religion and practice in Zimbabwe. The government does not require religious groups to register; however, religious groups operating schools or medical facilities must register those institutions with the appropriate ministry. Religious groups as well as schools and medical facilities run by religious groups may receive tax-exempt status.

The government of Zimbabwe has on several occasions in arrested religious leaders and disrupted or prohibited religious gatherings which were perceived to be critical of the government. Many public primary schools require a religious education course focusing on Christianity but covering other religious groups, emphasizing religious tolerance. There is no provision for opting out of religious instruction courses at the primary level. Students are able to opt out at the secondary level beginning at age 14, when they begin to choose their courses.

Tackling Religious Intolerance and Discrimination at the Workplace. More info Rabat Plan of Action on the prohibition of advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence. Heiner Bielefeldt Germany , August - October Asma Jahangir Pakistan , August - July Abdelfattah Amor Tunisia , April - July Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief. Communication Search.

Feature Stories. E-mail: freedomofreligion ohchr. Turn on more accessible mode. Turn off more accessible mode. French Spanish Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief.